0-10V dimming lighting control
0 - 10V dimming is one of the earliest and simplest electronic lighting control signal systems. Simply put, the control signal is a DC voltage that varies between zero and ten volts. There are currently two accepted standards: current source and current drop.
Typically used for theater dimming, the controller sends volts to the device. The controlled illumination should expand its output so that at 10 volts, the control light should be at 100% of its potential output, at 0 V, it should be at 0% output (ie off). The dimming device can be designed to respond to intermediate voltages in different modes, the output curve being linear: voltage output, actual light output, power output, or perceived light output.
The receiver has a nominal input impedance of 100 ± 20 KΩ (ie 10 V up to 1 ± 0.2 mW).
Production lighting systems have been replaced by analog multiplex systems such as D54 and amx192, which have almost completely replaced DMX512. Dimmable fluorescent lamps (which work there instead of 1–10 V, the minimum system of 1 V and 0 V are off), replaced by DSI, which itself is the process of being replaced by DALI.
Typically used in architectural lighting, the current controlled sinking scheme uses a ballast or driver to provide 10V DC. The controller reduces the returned voltage to light. If the controller returns a full 10V it will dim the light to the lowest level. If there is no volt, the light will be on. The current sinking plan has created a fail-safe situation. If the control line is cut or the controller fails, the light will illuminate.
Dimming fluorescent ballasts and dimming LED drivers typically use a 0 - 10V control signal to control the dimming function. In many cases, the dimming range of a power supply or ballast is limited. If the light output can only be reduced from 100% to 10%, then a switch or relay must be available to kill the system's power and completely turn off the light. Some 0 - 10 V controllers provide a built-in line voltage relay, others require an external line voltage relay.